SEPTEMBER 2018 ISSUE

Russian Nuclear Security Update
Dear Colleagues,
We are pleased to share with you the September
2018 issue of Russian Nuclear Security Update.

In early September it was announced that Russia will continue selling rocket engines to the United States despite current state of relationships between two countries. Dmitry Rogozin, Director General of Russian State Space Corporation (Roscosmos) and former Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Russian defense industry, said Russia is not intended to stop mutually beneficial cooperation with the United States despite political disagreements. On the other hand, earlier the U.S. Congress passed a budget that allows to continue buying the Russian RD-180 rocket engines because domestically developed substitute engines are not yet available.

Space industry is one of the crown jewels of Russia's high-tech and defense industry and arguably one of the areas, where Russia still maintains leadership positions on the international market. Similarly to nuclear industry, it comprises dozens of enterprises, many of them located in "closed cities", employs over 200000 people and handles vast amounts of sensitive information related to defense and weapon systems, including weapon of mass destruction. It also has substantial history of international cooperation in the areas such as bilateral arms reduction with the U.S. and cooperative threat reduction programs.

Continuing supply of the Russian rocket engines to the United States serves as another evidence that both countries can cooperate in the areas of mutual interest despite political disagreements and information sensitivities. There is no doubt nuclear security is one of those areas. It is not a matter of why we should cooperate on nuclear security, it is a matter of finding proper way of cooperation.

Enjoy reading!
Dima&Team

ROSATOM REPORTS ON NUCLEAR SECURITY ACTIVITIES IN 2017

In August, Rosatom published its Annual Report for 2017. The report includes coverage of security measures at nuclear sites including physical protection activities as well as measures on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons.
According to the physical protection section of report, in the year 2017 there were no violations of off-site and on-site access control procedures at Rosatom sites resulting in theft of nuclear material, terrorist acts and/or sabotage against nuclear facilities.

Guarding and physical protection provided to Rosatom nuclear sites, as well as used, stored and transported nuclear and radioactive materials comply with Russian legislation. Russian regulatory requirements fully comply with IAEA recommendations on physical protection and go beyond IAEA recommendations with regard to certain issues.
In 2017, Rosatom conducted twelve scheduled agency inspections of physical protection status at subordinate organizations, including inspections for compliance with requirements for antiterrorist protection.
Further steps were made to upgrade information systems for monitoring the status of physical protection systems at Rosatom nuclear sites. In 2017, eight nuclear sites started to operate this information system.

Also, in 2017:
  • More than 20 km of perimeters of nuclear sites' secure areas, including 40 access control points for personnel and vehicles, received upgrades and new equipment.
  • More than 5,000 pieces of equipment constituting physical protection equipment systems were installed in sites' protected areas.
  • Physical protection equipment was upgraded in more than 75 buildings.
  • Over 60 km of cable lines for physical protection systems were laid.
Measures to maintain the non-proliferation regime taken in the year 2017 include implementation of the Russian-American program to return research reactor fuel with highly enriched uranium (HEU) produced in Russia from third countries. In 2017, nuclear fuel from the research reactor VVR-K of the Institute of Nuclear Physics in Almaty, Kazakhstan, was imported to Russia for further reprocessing. Three flights carried 47.3 kg of HEU spent fuel. Nuclear fuel was delivered to the Mayak Production Association, one of the biggest nuclear facilities in the Russian Federation, housing a reprocessing plant.

It is also reported on the consideration of 366 draft contracts (agreements, treaties) in accordance with the Unified Industry Procedures on Export Control of Rosatom. The conclusions on the results of the expert review were directed to the relevant organizations. The expert review procedures allow verifying compliance with international and national legislation, including requirements of the Russian Federation international treaties in the field of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, their means of delivery and dual-use products.
Among the new priorities for 2018 were named conclusion of intergovernmental agreements aimed to solve problems of spent nuclear fuel of NPPs built by Russian projects abroad and ensuring the physical protection of these NPPs.

ROSATOM PLANS MINIMIZING RISKS OF POLITICAL SANCTIONS

According to the Annual Report, Rosatom found it harder to promote Russian nuclear technologies on global markets in 2017 and vowed to work on minimizing risks amid increased attempts to disadvantage the Russian nuclear industry. Nikolay Spassky, Deputy Director General for International Relations of Rosatom, explained how the company plans to minimize risks related to existing problems.

"First of all, we must enter the global market with an offer, primarily one for price, quality and timing that our competitors do not have. Being indispensable is the best insurance against discriminatory measures against you.

Secondly, and this is very important, it is necessary to fulfill our obligations strictly, regardless of the political situation. The importance of this factor is growing even more nowadays, when a number of states openly abuse the use of political prohibitions and restrictions in the sphere of international economic cooperation. Nothing like the reputation of a reliable partner can be earned so hard and lost so easily. We have this reputation, and it is vitally important for us to preserve and strengthen it. Here is an example. The fact that we completed the construction of Power Unit 1 of the Bushehr NPP in Iran, gave us a huge credit of trust not only from countries that sympathize with us, but also from our competitors and opponents.

Thirdly, it is necessary to strictly comply with all international requirements regulating relations between countries in the peaceful use of nuclear energy. This primarily refers to the requirements of nuclear non-proliferation and export control in general as well as nuclear safety and security.

Lastly, when launching a new international project, it is necessary to define mutual obligations competently and clearly. This is especially true when it comes to such long-term and large-scale projects as the construction of NPP or nuclear science and technology centers. These days, without false modesty, we have learned how to do it. The framework of intergovernmental agreements and intergovernmental agreements on specific projects are those primary documents, on the basis of which the rest of the normative system should be build up in the form of framework and executive contracts.

In conclusion, I want to note the importance of constant and close cooperation of all the participants of the Russian interagency community. Without such cooperation and mutual support in the current climate, the implementation of any serious international projects is impossible at all especially in such a high-tech, sensitive and directly related to the national security area as is the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes."

RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT INTRODUCED DRAFT CHANGES TO REGULATION ON STATE SYSTEM FOR ACCOUNTING AND CONTROL

In August 2018, Rosatom published the draft revision of Regulation on State System for Accounting and Control (SSAC) enacted by Government Decree N 352 of May 6, 2008, for public review along with justification of the amendments. Currently, public discussion is over and the draft is at the reconciliation and approval stage.

Regulation on SSAC is the key Russian regulatory document in the nuclear material accounting and control (MC&A) area. The document establishes the organization of the SSAC, roles and responsibilities of SSAC participants, and general requirements at all organizations involved in the production, use, processing, storage, transportation and movement of nuclear material across Russian Federation customs borders. The Regulation on SSAC also establishes the List of Nuclear Material and Special Non-Nuclear Material Subject to Governmental Accounting and Control.

According to the draft revision, the primary objective of the amendments is reaffirming Rosatom's authority to define procedures for control and accounting for nuclear materials involved in military programs. Currently, valid Regulation on SSAC only defines that such procedures should be established in "other regulations." Rosatom suggests revising the respective clause so that it explicitly refers to Rosatom regulations.
This will provide Rosatom with formal ground for implementing authority granted by the Federal Law 317-FZ "On Rosatom". The Law states that, pursuant to government decrees, Rosatom issues procedures for control and accounting for nuclear materials involved in defense programs.

Other objectives of the amendments are eliminating minor inconsistencies with Regulation on Rostechnadzor enacted by Government decree #401 of 30 July 2004, clarifying certain provisions based on established practice and making terminology use consistent with Russian Customs Regulations. Amendments suggested to achieve these objectives are editorial and do not affect MC&A authorities and procedures.

Additionally in August 2018, Rosatom announced several procurements related to SSAC. For instance, Rosatom purchased services for monitoring performance of the SSAC that include regulatory support and analytical work for accounting and control of nuclear materials for peaceful purposes and similar works for nuclear materials for defense purposes. The results of the services should contribute to the improvement and modernization of the SSAC. The full list of Rosatom procurements related to SSAC is provided below, in the "Overview of Russian Nuclear Security Procurements."

RUSSIA SELLS ADDITIONAL ROCKET ENGINES TO THE UNITED STATES DESPITE SANCTIONS

Energomash, leading Russian power engineering company, signed a contract with US aerospace manufacturer Orbital ATK to supply four additional RD-181 rocket engines for US Antares-type launch vehicles. Dmitry Rogozin, Director General of Russian State Space Corporation (Roscosmos) and former Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Russian defense industry, said Russia is not intended to stop mutually beneficial cooperation with the United States despite political disagreements.

According to top managers of the enterprises of the space industry, the negotiations took place against the backdrop of a rocky relationship between Russia and the U.S., but "they could not end another way", as the mutual advantage of this agreement is obvious to everyone. The contract was signed last Summer, and it is to be fulfilled by 2021. The amount of the transaction has not been disclosed. Energomash did not provide any official comments.

The situation with Energomash products supply to the U.S. is one of the most sensitive topics of Russian-American cooperation. Energomash delivers RD-180 engines for Atlas III and Atlas V rockets and RD-181 engines for Antares launch vehicles. The first contract on RD-180s was concluded in 1997 and covered the delivery of 101 engines. The deal was estimated at about $1 billion. The U.S. also obtained a license for the production of RD-180 engines and their analogues but has failed so far to arrange their production. The license agreement expires in 2030. The contract for the delivery of RD-181s (20 engines) was signed in 2014 and includes two options, each for 20 engines. The deal was estimated at around $1 billion.

The issue of replacing the Russian rocket engines arose amid the deterioration of relations between Moscow and Washington in 2014 as a result of sanctions imposed on Russia over the Ukrainian crisis. Legislators, with Senator John McCain being one of the strongest advocates of the Russian engines replacement, passed a law requiring the United States to develop a domestically produced next-generation rocket propulsion system by 2019 so as not to rely on the RD-180s. The Pentagon leadership has reportedly set to substitute the engines with the domestic technology by 2020. However, later it was announced that the Atlas V carrier rockets with RD-180 will be used through 2024 or 2025. In December 2015, the U.S. Congress passed a budget that includes a provision allowing the country to continue buying the Russian RD-180 rocket engines. In 2016, the U.S. placed an order with Energomash for an additional 18 RD-180 engines.

Dmitry Rogozin recently commented that Russia would continue to ship rocket engines to the United States, if its American partners want them. "Despite the massive pressure customers of these engines are coming under in the U.S. from the ruling American class and the Congress, so far there is no alternative," he said, referring to it as "mutual dependence". "This is profitable for us, because it brings money that we invest into upgrading and creating new enterprises," he added.

According to Roscosmos management, so far dependence on the U.S. purchases of rocket engines is critical for Energomash. No other country is ready to start purchasing multiple (more than 10 units) engine batches. Single supplies, in turn, do not exactly meet the interests of Russia. However, according to Igor Arbuzov, the Director General of Energomash, negotiations are in progress not only with the United States, but also with China and other partner countries, including Argentina, Brazil, India.

Sources: 1. "Russia signed a contract with USA for supplying new batch of RD-181", September 4, 2018
2. "Despite sanctions: companies from Russia and the USA signed a contract for military engines", September 4, 2018
3. "Russia to supply two batches of rocket engines to US", June 15, 2018
4. "Russian Company Completes Program to Supply RD-181 Engines to US for 2017", November 1, 2017

ROSATOM HELD A MEETING WITH AMBASSADORS AND PERMANENT REPRESENTATIVES OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION TO INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

On July 17, 2018, Rosatom held a meeting with ambassadors and permanent representatives of the Russian Federation to international organizations. First Deputy Director General for Operations Management of Rosatom, Alexander Lokshin, and Deputy Director General for International Relations of Rosatom, Nikolay Spassky, took part in the meeting among other top managers of Rosatom. More than 40 Russian diplomatic representatives got acquainted with the main projects and activities of Rosatom. Participants of the meeting discussed support to Rosatom work at international markets.

Alexander Lokshin thanked the ambassadors and permanent representatives of Russian Federation to international organizations for the support provided during the conduct of foreign project events. He also acquainted the participants of the meeting with updated information on the current position of Rosatom in the international market of nuclear technologies. In the final part of the meeting, Rosatom representatives answered numerous questions of the participants.

Sources: "The meeting with ambassadors and permanent representatives of Russian Federation to international organizations was held by Rosatom", July 18, 2018

AMBASSADOR OF FRANCE VISITED ATOMFLOT

On July 17, 2018, French ambassador in Russia, Sylvie Bermann, visited Atomflot, a Rosatom enterprise operating the fleet of nuclear powered icebreakers and nuclear service ships.
Together with the top management of Atomflot, the French ambassador discussed nuclear security issues and the work of the nuclear icebreaking fleet in the water area of the Northern Sea Route. During the technical tour around the enterprise, the ambassador visited the Floating Power Unit Akademik Lomonosov and the floating dock where the nuclear icebreaker Yamal is undergoing scheduled maintenance.

Sylvie Bermann's visit to Atomflot was preceded by a meeting with Deputy Governor of the Murmansk region, Roman Duryagin. During the visit to Murmansk, the ambassador got acquainted with the results of the Russian-French cooperation towards rehabilitation of radiation hazardous facilities in Andreeva Bay and Gremikha. Sylvie Bermann confirmed that France greatly appreciates its experience of bilateral cooperation with Russia in nuclear security and is interested in the disposal of spent nuclear fuel from the storage facility in the Murmansk region.

Sources: "Ambassador of France Sylvie Bermann visited Rosatomflot", July 17, 2017

ROSATOM MOVES AN OLD NUCLEAR SUBMARINE MAINTENANCE SHIP FOR DECOMMISSIONING TO MURMANSK

In July 2018, the Floating Maintenance Base PM-124 was moored to Murmansk for decommissioning. It took Rosatom about 10 years to find a solution on how to transport it for safe storage from the Zvezdochka Shipyard in Severodvinsk to the Sayda Bay facility near Murmansk. The Sayda Bay facility is run by SevRAO, the northern branch of RosRAO, one of Russia's state nuclear waste handling contractor.

The Floating Maintenance Base PM-124 was built in 1960 and used as a floating dock for servicing nuclear submarines in the Soviet Northern Fleet. In 1985, the service life of the base was extended, and it continued collecting fuel assemblies for another 20 years. Since 2005, the fuel assemblies have been removed, but for some time the vessel was used as a storage facility for solid and liquid radioactive waste at Zvezdochka Shipyard.

According to Anatoliy Zakharchev, Manager of the Project "Integrated Disposal of Nuclear Submarines" at Rosatom, the negotiations on the project for transporting the PM-124 from Severodvinsk lasted for about 10 years, and the cost of this complex procedure was growing constantly. Finally, the decision was made to use the nuclear-waste transport vessel Itarus, put into operation in 2016.

Itarus is one of two nuclear-waste transportation vessels that Italy provided to Russia under its Global Partnership obligations. The other, the Rossita, a €70 million container ship, is now engaged in ferrying spent nuclear submarine fuel from Andreyeva Bay. The Itarus was designed specifically for transporting reactor compartments from dismantled nuclear submarines to Sayda Bay.

The main challenge for transporting the maintenance base was the size of PM-124 that did not allow placing it in the Itarus. Therefore, the vessel had to be picked up and cut into the right size, protecting from leakage before placing it in the water, and only then, transported. This unique operation allowed the transport of the vessel to Murmansk for decommissioning. The special packages for the long-term storage of PM-124 should be manufactured by 2019.

After the operation showed the abilities of the Itarus, Rosatom considered the possibilities of using it as a valuable tool in retrieving nuclear reactors and other radioactive debris of the Soviet Navy scuttled in Arctic waters. Anatoliy Zakharchev commented that such a decision gives autonomy in its technical operations and decreases the expenses of budgetary funds by four times in comparison with the previously used technical solutions.

Sources: "Unique procedure was held on mooring the floating maintenance base for decommissioning", August 9, 2018
"Italian vessel assists in removing Russian Navy's nuclear waste", August 14, 2018

NUCLEAR FUEL LOADING STARTED AT THE FIRST FLOATING POWER UNIT AKADEMIK LOMONOSOV

The loading of the nuclear fuel started at the world's first Floating Power Unit (FPU) Akademik Lomonosov in Murmansk, on July 25, 2018. It is one of the key stages of FPU preparation for the operation.
"The next key stages to be implemented after obtaining the relevant permits of Rostechnadzor till the end of this year, are physical start-up of reactors and the beginning of complex mooring tests", – said Vitaliy Trutnev, the Head of the Directorate for the Floating NPP Construction and Operation.
Also on August 17, 2018, a joint fire drill was held at FPU by the Fire and Rescue Unit of Russian Emergency Ministry and Murmansk department of ATC SPb, a professional emergency response center of Rosatom.

Sources: "Nuclear fuel loading started at the world's first Floating Power Unit Akademik Lomonosov, designed for power supply of Chukotka", July 25, 2018
"Murmansk department participated the fire drill at the Floating Nuclear Power Plant Akademik Lomonosov", August 8, 2018

THE ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJAN CONFLICT THREATENS THE DESTRUCTION OF NPP IN ARMENIA

There are objects in Armenia, after the destruction of which there will be no life in these territories for centuries, the press service of the Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan said in July 24, 2018. The statement was made following the remarks of the Head of the Military Regime in the occupied Azerbaijan territories, Levon Mnatsakanyan, about "striking, if necessary, the Mingachevir Hydroelectric Power Station."

The Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan did not mention directly the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, but in fact this is the only possible object after the destruction of which there will be no life in these territories for centuries. However, any accident related to the nuclear power plant will endanger not only Armenia, but also Turkey, Iran, Georgia, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (placed at the Armenian-Azerbaijan border) and the rest of Azerbaijan.

According to the message of the Ministry of Defense of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan army is ready for any course of events at the frontline. The most modern weapon systems are capable of destroying all important military facilities and strategic communications of the enemy in a short time. The air and missile defense systems of Azerbaijan ensure the full security of the air space, as well as significant state and military facilities.

The conflict between the two South Caucasus countries began in 1988 when Armenia made territorial claims against Azerbaijan. As a result of the ensuing war in 1992, Armenian armed forces occupied 20 percent of Azerbaijan including the Nagorno-Karabakh region and seven surrounding districts.
The 1994 ceasefire agreement was followed by peace negotiations. Armenia has not yet implemented four UN Security Council resolutions on withdrawal of its armed forces from Nagorno-Karabakh and the surrounding districts.

Sources: "Azerbaijan threatens its own population and its allies with Armenian radiation", July 25, 2018
"Destruction of facilities in Armenia to make life extinct for centuries", July 24, 2018

MENTALLY SICK WOMAN FROM ST. PETERSBURG 'MINED' LENINGRAD NPP BY PHONE

At 5 p.m. on July 24, 2018, an emergency service of Saint-Petersburg received a call from a woman according to which a bomb was planted at Leningrad NPP.
After an anonymous call, special services started checking the NPP, and the police were looking for the caller. No explosive devices were found at the territory of the NPP. Later, the police identified the telephone terrorist as a 62-year-old senior citizen of Saint-Petersburg. It turned out that the woman suffers from a mental disorder and does not always understand what she is doing. The woman was questioned and then transferred to the city hospital.

Sources: "Mentally sick woman from St. Petersburg 'mined' Leningrad NPP by phone", July 27, 2018

MAJOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE EXERCISES WERE HELD IN AUGUST

An emergency response training was held in Porechye, Tver region, on the topic: "Elimination of the consequences of radiation accidents during transportation of ionizing radiation sources by road transport" from July 24 to 27 of 2018.
The emergency response teams of the following services participated in the training: ATC SPb, a professional emergency response center of Rosatom, Rosatom's Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), Russian center for radioactive waste disposal Radon, and Situation and Crisis Center of Rosatom.

On July 25, 2018, the comprehensive emergency response training with the deployment of all involved rescue equipment and personnel was held at the Porechye training ground of VNIIA. In the course of the training, participants worked out the practical actions for the response to radiation accidents during road transport, practiced skills in the operation of remote emergency rescue equipment, and confirmed their readiness for emergency response and the elimination of the consequences of possible radiation accidents.

Later, other training, named "Ladoga-2018", was held for the emergency response teams of ATC SPb in Leningrad region. From July 30 to August 10, 2018, participants worked out actions on the elimination of the consequences of radiation accidents in real radiation contamination conditions.
During the training, the comprehensive training exercise was held based on the scenario of a transport accident with various hazards. The following emergency rescue procedures were practiced: radiation and engineering reconnaissance, first aid measures, evacuation of the victim from the contaminated area, restoring control over the source and its decontamination, actions of rescuers on the water, etc. Also the response teams worked out actions in the case of accidents at nuclear and radiation facilities.

The floating laboratory of radiation monitoring Proton was used for the training. The laboratory carried out a passage across the Gulf of Finland and conducted a number of measurements of the activity of natural radionuclides and Сesium-137 in water at depths of 2 to 6 m without sampling using a submersible spectrometric unit SCS-99 "Sputnik".

Sources: "ATC SPb took part in the training exercises at the Porechye training ground of VNIIA", July 30, 2018
"ATC SPb held the training 'Ladoga-2018' for the emergency response teams", August 14, 2018

THE STATUS OF A CLOSED CITY COULD BE ABOLISHED IN SEVERSK

Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) and Seversk administration established a group to ease the access regime and to abolish the status of a closed city in the near future.
Seversk is a closed city with restricted access where Rosatom fuel company, a Siberian Chemical Combine, one of the largest nuclear fuel cycle sites in the world hosting dozens of tons of weapon usable nuclear materials, is located. About one hundred thousand people currently live in Seversk.

"The working group formed of specialists of the city administration and representatives of the SCC, has already been established. They address issues of liberalization of the access regime and, as a result, removal of the fence around the city", – said Grigory Shamin, the Head of Seversk administration.
Results of the sociological survey showed that only 20% of Seversk residents are against abolishing the regime. Mostly these are elderly people, who are used to living in a closed city and teenagers who feel themselves unique.

The issue of abolishing the status of a closed city for Seversk was discussed a few years ago. In 2015, the Russian Ministry of Economic Development and Trade presented drafts of the Presidential Decrees on abolishing the regime for the following Rosatom's cities: Seversk in Tomsk Region, Zelenogorsk in Krasnoyarsk region, Novouralsk in Sverdlovsk region, Zarechny in Penza region. However, the final decision was postponed for an indefinite period.

Similarly to Shikhani (details on abolishing the status of a closed city of Shikhani were presented in the August 2018 issue of Russian Nuclear Security Update), it is planned to establish territory of priority development in Seversk with favorable tax conditions, simplified administrative procedures and other privileges. High-tech chemistry, medicine, nuclear technologies, mechanical engineering and IT were defined as priority areas of activity for the city. The administration of the city expects about RUB 12 billion ($177 million) in private investments in Seversk and about 1,500 new jobs at new facilities.

Sources: "Siberian Chemical Combine and ZATO Seversk established a group to mitigate the access regime", August 15, 2018

NATIONAL GUARD NAVAL TROOPS REPORT ON PROTECTION OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE FACILITIES

The 32nd naval detachment of the Ural District celebrated the 322nd anniversary of the formation of the Russian Navy on 29 July 2018. This is one out of six detachments of the National Guard Naval Service Corps, a special branch of the Russian National Guard that includes naval service, water police and coast guard.

The commander of the Ural District of the Russian National Guard, Major General Alexander Popov, congratulated servicemen and veterans of the detachment: "The list of objects taken under protection by the seamen of the National Guard includes enterprises of nuclear and chemical industries, location of the state nuclear fleet, and nuclear power plants. Personnel of the 32nd Detachment honorably perform important tasks for the protection of water boundaries of critical state facilities of the district".

Based on the results of service and combat activities in the first half of 2018, no penetration of violators into protected facilities was allowed by the personnel of the detachment. Specialists of the detachment conducted over 60 dives and surveyed over 20 thousand sq. meters of underwater areas, when performing combat service tasks. No emergency accidents or equipment damage was allowed.

Sources: "The Day of the Russian Navy was celebrated in the marine detachment of the Ural district of National Guard" July 30, 2018

DEDAL HELD WORKSHOPS ON NEURAL NETWORK PROCESSING FOR PHYSICAL PROTECTION AND PRESENTED ITS NEW PRODUCTS

In July 2018, the workshop titled: "Application of Neural Network Processing Methods for Physical Protection Equipment" was held by representatives of Dubna State University and DEDAL, one of the leading Rosatom enterprises specialized in the development and manufacture of equipment for integrated physical protection systems.

Last year, the enterprise established a specialized department named "Integrated Safety and Security of the Informatization Objects" in Dubna State University in the framework of agreement on scientific, technical and educational collaboration between DEDAL and the university. More details on the new department were published in the Winter 2017/2018 issue of Russian Nuclear Security Update. This year, the Bachelor and Master Degree programs titled "The Design and Technology of Physical Protection Systems" begin admissions at the department.

The results of joint projects of DEDAL and Dubna State University in the field of biosensors and biomonitoring for security systems were discussed at the workshop. One of these projects, "DendroiD", was selected for exhibition at the International Military-Technical Forum "Army-2018".
Also during the workshop, participants discussed the application of neural network processing methods for the design of new security equipment and got acquainted with the universal vibration detection device "Karteche". The device was designed by DEDAL with the use of neural network methods of processing alarm signal information.

In August 2018, a similar workshop was held by DEDAL for representatives of the Combined Arms Academy of the Russian Armed Forces and 12th Main Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of Russia, the main body responsible for maintenance and security of Russian nuclear weapons. New equipment designed with the use of the neural network processing methods was demonstrated. The development of non-lethal action equipment was discussed with military officials as well. Autonomous power supply systems based on alternative energy sources for physical protection and detection and counteraction of unmanned aerial vehicles were chosen as topics for the future workshops.

Also in August 2018, within the framework of International Military-Technical Forum "Army-2018", DEDAL presented its latest developments for enhancing the anti-terrorist security of facilities, including against military-trained marine animals and underwater drones. The most interesting developments are "Yenisey", "Kedr-SMV", "DikobrAZ", and "Spectrum".

"Yenisey" is a device designed by DEDAL to detect, deter and prevent the penetration of energy facilities, naval bases, hydraulic structures, ports, and shipyards by underwater and above-water violators, mini-subs, autonomous underwater vehicles, and military-trained marine animals. The device is able to detect the underwater threat and conduct a non-lethal sonar attack. "Kedr-SMV" is another system designed to detect divers and small underwater equipment by sonar is the intrusion detection system.

The non-lethal electroshock device "DikobrAZ" is an electrified obstacle designed for strengthening the mobile detection system "Sapsan", a security system also designed by DEDAL.

"Spectrum" is a radiations monitor with built-in metal detection function designed to prevent illegal transport of nuclear materials, radioactive substances and weapons. The monitor was developed in cooperation with another Rosatom company, All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics.

Sources: 1. "Seminar on intellectualization of the physical protection system was held in DEDAL", July 14, 2018
2. "DEDAL held seminar on anti-terrorism security", August 13, 2018
3. "Rosatom presented the device against military-trained marine animals", August 21, 2018

OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN NUCLEAR SECURITY PROCUREMENTS

According to Russian legislation, Rosatom and its subsidiary organizations must publish information related to the procurements using federal budget funding as well as their own money. This information is published at a dedicated web-site - http://zakupki.rosatom.ru/. Around three hundred procurements, including procurements related to MPC&A (material protection, control and accounting) are published daily. In August 2018, 176 procurements related to nuclear security were announced.
This article reviews the most interesting procurements and related trends.

State System for Material Control and Accounting
In August, Rosatom announced several procurements for supporting nuclear materials control and accounting (MC&A) state level infrastructure. The purchased services should contribute to modernization of the State System for Accounting and Control. The list of procurements includes contracts between Rosatom and Atombezopasnost, the coordinating center for design of safety and control systems, for the following services:
  • Operation and modernization of Information Analytical Center of the Federal Automated Information System for Nuclear Materials Accounting and Control.
  • Analytical support of works related to the implementation of intergovernmental agreements of the Russian Federation on peaceful use of nuclear energy. This includes collection, processing, and analysis data, compilation of reports on nuclear materials as subject to these agreements, and development of the draft documents for Rosatom on MC&A in order to ensure compliance with the terms of agreements of the Russian Federation on the peaceful use of nuclear energy.
  • Monitoring and analytical support of nuclear materials control system in the Russian Federation.
  • Monitoring performance of the State System for Accounting and Control.
  • Preparing the State Registry of nuclear materials in federal ownership and List of nuclear materials owned by legal entities of the Russian Federation, as well as belonging to foreign states and foreign legal entities temporarily located on the territory of the Russian Federation, based on collecting and processing of information on the presence and movement of nuclear materials.
Also Rosenergoatom, a power generation division of Rosatom, one of the largest power generation companies in Russia, announced procurement on maintenance of the automated information MC&A system of Rosenergoatom and operational support of these systems at all NPPs.

Biometric equipment for Rosatom nuclear sites
Seven procurements related to equipping nuclear facilities with biometric identification systems were announced in August. Procurements for the construction, installation and commissioning of the biometric identification systems at the checkpoints were published by Kalinin, Kursk, Novovoronezh and Balakovo NPPs, and at the transport checkpoints for Beloyarsk NPP.
Procurements on developing the design and detailed documentation for further equipment of checkpoints with biometric identification systems were published by Novosibirsk Chemical Concentrates Plant, one of the world's leading manufacturers of the nuclear fuel for NPPs and for research reactors, and OKBM Afrikantov, the main designer for flagship nuclear navy propulsion projects, including reactors for nuclear submarines, nuclear-powered icebreakers, and the Floating NPP project

Physical protection for Russian NPPs
A power generation division of Rosatom, Rosenergoatom, ensures nuclear security of domestic NPPs. In August, the following procurements were published:
  • Beloyarsk NPP announced procurement on provision of a small-deck ship for the security service to patrol the waters of Beloyarsk artificial lake used for the reactor's cooling. The ship has to be equipped with a loading ramp for the guards and PP equipment that is able to offload at any shore.
  • Novovoronezh NPP started phased modernization of the protected area of the facility by purchasing various types of PP equipment.
  • Kalinin NPP concluded a contract with Eleron, the largest Rosatom developer of physical protection systems, for equipping Unit Pump Stations and the stand-by Diesel Generator Unit with PP systems to ensure uninterrupted operation of the NPP. Novovoronezh NPP also published procurement on supplying PP equipment for its Unit Pump Stations in August.
  • Kursk NPP published procurements on supplying various detecting equipment, including stationary automatic analyzer "SHELF-TI" for detecting explosive and narcotic substances.
  • Kalinin NPP purchased services for random medical examination of personnel for alcohol, narcotic and other intoxication.
  • Leningrad NPP procurement of onsite protection services and maintenance of access control to the protected area, as well as protection of the property of NPP during transportation. The allocated amount (over $660000 or RUB 50 million) covers protection services for four buildings, including facilities at Leningrad NPP-2, for the following year 2019.
  • Kola and Balakovo NPPs procurements on maintenance of ZALA 421-22/AS system for aerial surveillance. This is a medium-range unmanned aerial vehicle intended for missions such as surveillance and reconnaissance, perimeter security, search and detection of objects.

Physical protection for Rosatom nuclear sites
Apart from NPPs, other Rosatom enterprises purchase services for ensuring PP as well. In the past, many of these nuclear sites received technical support as a part of nuclear security cooperation with the U.S. Procurements outlined below provides evidence of funding support available to Russian nuclear sites after withdrawal of the U.S. funding:
  • Over $590,000 (RUB 40 million) was allocated for physical protection of radioactive materials and radioactive waste by RosRAO, Radioactive Waste Management Enterprise of Rosatom. The procurement covers construction and installation works within the project "PPS Modernization of Radioactive Waste Storage Facility" at the Volga (Privolzhsky) Federal District branch of RosRAO in Nizhny Novgorod and Kazan, and maintenance of the video surveillance system for radwaste storage facility at the Southern Federal District branch.
  • Pilot and Demonstration Center for Decommissioning of Uranium-Graphite Nuclear Reactors, a Rosatom enterprise under the Back End Division, published procurement on supplying equipment for detecting explosive substances and dangerous liquids. The Center, established on the basis of Siberian Chemical Combine in Seversk, specializes in comprehensive decommissioning of single-type nuclear facilities previously used for weapons grade plutonium production. These reactors were shut down within the framework of the U.S.-Russian "Agreement Concerning the Shutdown of Plutonium Production Reactors and the Cessation of Use of Newly Produced Plutonium for Nuclear Weapons".
  • Russian Federal Nuclear Center (VNIIEF) of Rosatom, a premier research and development center for nuclear weapons in Sarov, announced procurements for staff trainings on PP equipment operation and maintenance and organization of physical protection at the nuclear facility.

Other procurements of interest
  • Rosenergoatom procurement of cyber security system for detection and prevention of the targeted attacks for all NPPs, for a total amount over $1.27 million (RUB 87 million).
  • Rosenergoatom procurement on replacing old uninterruptible power supply units for dispatching communication systems at the central control point of Rosenergoatom, and for digital radio communication equipment at NPP control points for the security services.
  • Procurement on conducting vulnerability analysis and effectiveness assessment of PPS for nuclear and radioactive materials and nuclear facilities during transportation announced by Saint Petersburg ISOTOPE. The company provided freight forwarding services to nuclear fuel cycle companies and delivers radioisotope products, instruments, equipment and protection features for work with radioactive materials.
  • Contract between Rosatom and IPPE, nuclear technology research and development institute in Obninsk, for conducting analytical work, including research, monitoring and maintenance of the Register for Civil Plutonium, and preparation of annual reports on plutonium stocks in the Russian Federation for the IAEA.
  • Procurement of Atomkomplekt, a Rosatom enterprise specializing in organization of tenders and procurement activities, for conducting comparative safety analysis for open and closed nuclear fuel cycles and safety assessment for implementation of various nuclear fuel cycle concepts in the Russian Federation.


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